A Field Guide to Genetic Programming

Table of Contents

Riccardo Poli
Department of Computing and Electronic Systems
University of Essex - UK


William B. Langdon
Departments of Biological and Mathematical Sciences
University of Essex - UK


Nicholas F. McPhee
Division of Science and Mathematics
University of Minnesota, Morris - USA


with contributions by
John R. Koza
Stanford University - USA


March 2008

This document has been obtained by converting the Latex sources of  the book using htlatex and htmldoc, and finally fixing the main remaining problems manually. We believe the result is acceptable. However, to enjoy our manuscript in its full quality please download the free PDF version of the book available from


Alternatively, please purchase an inexpensive printed copy from Lulu.com.


©Riccardo Poli, William B. Langdon, and Nicholas F. McPhee, 2008 This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-No Derivative Works 2.0 UK: England & Wales License (see http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/2.0/uk/). That is:

You are free:
to copy, distribute, display, and perform the work Under the following conditions: Attribution. You must give the original authors credit. Non-Commercial. You may not use this work for commercial purposes. No Derivative Works. You may not alter, transform, or build upon this work. For any reuse or distribution, you must make clear to others the licence terms of this work. Any of these conditions can be waived if you get permission from the copyright holders. Nothing in this license impairs or restricts the authors' rights.

Non-commercial uses are thus permitted without any further authorisation from the copyright owners. The book may be freely downloaded in electronic form at http://www.gp-field-guide.org.uk. Printed copies can also be purchased inexpensively from http://lulu.com. For more information about Creative Commons licenses, go to http://creativecommons.org or send a letter to Creative Commons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California, 94105, USA.

To cite this book, please see the entry for (Poli, Langdon, and McPhee2008) in the bibliography.

ISBN 978-1-4092-0073-4 (softcover)

Table of Contents